Session 22 – Road Materials and Innovation
In this session, chaired by Nikiforos Stamatiadis, we have occassion to discuss various techniques and materials used in road construction. In the light of recent principals, particular attention is put to sostainability, quality improvement and safety.
Ronald Roberts, Gaetano Di Mino and Laura Inzerillo – Developing a framework for using Structure from Motion techniques for Road Distress applications / Speaking of maintenance and rehabilitation, the key is the ability of road agencies to quickly identify road pavement distresses. Given that agencies have issues of finance and time constraints it becomes a very important topic. It became urgent to identify new solutions and techniques to solve these issues. One of the techniques that has been considered is the use of Structure from Motion which try to recreate 3D models of the distresses and use these to identify the distresses. This paper considers this methodology but attempts to integrate it with the units of measurement currently used by Road pavement manuals so as to illustrate exactly how the technique can be used based on real-world industry standards and practices. The results from the examples show that the technique replicates pavement distresses of varying measurement requirements and the paper presents a workflow of how the technique can be utilized for different measurement requirements to help optimize the pavement management system and their connections to available distress identification manuals.
Felice Giuliani, Federico Autelitano, Erika Garilli and Antonio Montepara – Expanded polystyrene (EPS) in road construction: Twenty years of Italian experiences / In this study the authors offered a critical analysis of the different road application of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) it Italy, which is thermoplastic material, derived from pre-expanded polystyrene beads, that combines an extreme lightweight with versatile strength and thermal insulation. Authors took into consideration benefit and drawbacks, proposing technical and economic considerations for ideal conditions of use and suggesting failure analysis methods and tools.
Ronald Fabrice Pouokam Kamdem, Samuel O. Abejide, Jacob A. Adedeji and Mohamed M.H. Mostafa – Evaluating the Performance of Warm Mix Asphalt Incorporating Recycled Asphalt Treated Bases / The topic that is lately gaining more and more interest around the world is the use of warm mix asphalt (WMA) partially mixed with recycled asphalt pavement (PAV). It’s higher benefits over hot mixed asphalt (HMA) is discussed, such as health benefit to workers as they are less exposed to the effect of high heat emissions and fumes, environmental benefit due to its low hazardous gas emission, economical benefits to asphalt producers in countries where stricter emission standards are implemented and enforced, and paving benefits as it offers good workability to paving road in cold weather condition. This study evaluates the mechanical performances under the effects of temperatures and loads variation on WMA with RAP as a base layer. In order to achieve the aim of this study, various scenarios were then analyzed and modeled using non-destructive finite element method (FEM) which is a 3D finite element model in ABAQUS. This paper also attempt to understanding the structural strength in terms of resistance against rutting damages and fatigue cracking of WMA partially incorporating RAP over HMA as a base layer.
Piotr Jaskula, Cezary Szydlowski, Marcin Stienss, Dawid Rys, Mariusz Jaczewski and Marek Pszczola – Durable poroelastic wearing course SEPOR with high modified bitumen / World development of poroelastic pavements is still at the experimental stage. Insufficient durability is one of the most important issue to be solved. Conventional poroelastic road surface is composed of stone aggregate, crushed rubber aggregate (at about 20% by weight) and polyurethane binder. High modified asphalt binders (HiMA) are relatively new product on the market, with mechanical properties significantly better from neat bitumen or traditional modified bitumens and polyurethane binder as well. The paper presents the first results of SEPOR mix with selection of bitumen binders and mixtures composition for durable poroelastic wearing course. The first short road sections with different compositions of poroelastic surface SEPOR were constructed with good promising observation.
Anton Pashkevich, Jacek Bartusiak, Lidia Żakowska and Tomasz E. Burghardt – Durable Waterborne Horizontal Road Markings for Improvement of Air Quality / In this article, continuing the series related to road marking paints, a comparison is given between waterborne and solventborne systems reflectorised with high quality glass beads in terms of durability and the emissions of VOC. Potential for formation of tropospheric ozone and the health effects from the evaporating solvents is addressed. The results from urban field test done within the city of Kraków as well as from rural test fields from Poland and Croatia demonstrate the advantage of modern waterborne paints and premium glass beads over standard products. Furthermore, estimates of VOC emissions from road marking paints and their potential for formation of ground-level ozone are given for several Mediterranean countries to quantify the possible long-term benefits that could be realised by switching to durable premium road marking materials.
Nikiforos Stamatiadis, Basil Psarianos, Konstantinos Apostoleris, Philippos Taliouras, Alfonso Montella and Gianluca Garofoli – A Case for Differentiating Design Consistency Evaluation between Day and Night / This study’s background lies in the nighttime driving issues and nighttime crashes. A large percentage of fatal crashes occur at night: 47 percent in the USA and 36 percent in the EU. A possible contributing factor to the higher crash rates at night is the reduced sight distance as it compares to that in the day. This study is the first step towards demonstrating the influence of roadway geometry and especially horizontal curvature on nighttime crashes through a preliminary analysis. The objective of the study was first identify the magnitude of the problem and then provide some guidance for future research. The findings indicate that the increased crash occurrence at night could be related to the curve radius. Sharper curves, i.e., curves with small radii, showed an increase in crashes and crash rate when they were compared to their corresponding daytime crashes. Design consistency was evaluated using the radii of successive curves and the data again supported the the presence of differences in crash experience between day and night conditions.
CHAIRMAN: Nikiforos Stamatiadis